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Shortly after the helium flash light carbon and oxygen, each of these events is of great stars and the restructuring of its rapid movement on the diagram Gertsshprunga - Russell. The size of the star atmosphere increases even more, and she begins to lose heavily in the form of gas razletayuschihsya flow of stellar wind. The fate of the central part of the star depends entirely on its initial mass: kernel-stars may finish their evolution as a white dwarf (low-star), if its mass at the late stages of evolution exceeds the limit Chandrasekara - a neutron star (pulsar), but if weight exceeds limit Oppenheimer - Volkov - a black hole. In two recent cases, the completion of the evolution of stars is accompanied by catastrophic events - bursts of supernovae.
The vast majority of stars and the sun including the complete evolution, compressing until the pressure of degenerate electrons do not balance the gravity. In this state, when the star is reduced to a hundred times, and the density becomes a million times higher than water density, the star called a white dwarf. She lacks energy and gradually ostyvaya becomes dark and invisible.
In stars more massive than the Sun, the pressure of degenerate electrons can not contain the core compression, and it continues until the majority of particles will not turn into neutrons, packed so tightly that the star is measured by kilometers, a density of 100 million times the density water. Such an object called a neutron star and its equilibrium is supported by the pressure of a degenerate neutron matter.